by Arjen Boin, Mark Rhinard and Magnus Ekengren
The recent terrorist attacks in Paris and Brussels, in combination with the ongoing refugee crisis, demonstrate to many the risks of increased integration and open borders. In response, the borders are closing and the walls are coming up. The European road towards integration is running into roadblocks.
It is a scenario that EU-skeptics envisioned when the European Union began to speed up its march towards integration in the 1990s. Scholars and skeptics warned that the rise of integration would create new risks: transboundary threats that do not fall neatly within the geographic borders of a country, or politely confine themselves to a well-marked policy sector. Continue reading
Nicola Del Medico, 8 October 2015
The flow of refugees to the shores and borders of the EU member states is putting to the test their ability to show solidarity and protect the rights of thousands of human beings. This challenge recently made its way on the UN agenda, and it is growing in relevance also within the G20, which does not formally deal with peace and security and maintains an economic and financial focus.
On 16-21 August 2015, the Syrian refugee crisis was discussed by the G20 Youth Summit (the so-called Y20) on the initiative of the Turkish presidency, which is particularly sensitive to an emergency that is impacting heavily not just on European countries but also on Syria’s neighbours, including Turkey. Continue reading